Myeloid cell: CD14
Unlocking T cells for long term immunity & protection from COVID19
Historically, prophylactic viral vaccines have concentrated on the stimulation of neutralizing antibodies.
Some highly efficacious antibody-based vaccines exist. However, many others have failed to induce long-term efficacy and protection. Studies provide evidence that effective prophylactic vaccines against complex viruses such as Coronavirus, West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and herpesviruses must elicit a strong T cell immunity response. This has boosted research in this area, however, this has not resulted in many vaccines capable of inducing sterilizing immunity.
Myeloid cells have been shown to have a potent ability to serve as a bridge to activate potent T cell responses
Optimal virus clearance requires the induction of virus-specific T cells to promote long-term immunity. Myeloid cells play an essential role in initiating and shaping virus-specific responses by presenting viral antigens to T cells for activation of the adaptive immune system. Conventional vaccines, however, do not optimally enable viral antigen transfer to dendritic cells and therefore do not result in a robust virus specific T cell response. Technology, originally developed in the laboratory of Michael Dee Gunn at Duke ( LINK TO THE JCI PAPER), has shown the potent ability of Myeloid cells to serve as the bridge to activate potent T cell responses. Together Myeloid therapeutics and Duke are developing the COVID19 myeloid cell vaccine.
Link to white paper from duke
The future of T cell Vaccines
Prior studies of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS strongly support testing of alternative strategies capable of eliciting SARS-CoV-2-specific
T cell responses.
COVID19-ATAKTM myeloid cell vaccine
The current COVID19 landscape has observed the emergence of vaccines that focus on the generation of neutralizing antibodies. While these efforts are justified, prior studies of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS strongly support testing of alternative strategies capable of eliciting SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. It has been shown that T-cell immunity is protective for SARS-CoV and plays an important role in recovery from infection. Suboptimal T cell responses also contribute to the development of severe SARS in animal models, which may explain the high mortality of SARS-CoV-2 in the elderly. In SARS-CoV, cellular immunity may also offer longer protection than antibodies. In patients who have recovered from SARS-CoV infection, anti-viral antibodies are often undetectable, whereas memory T cells have been shown to persist for up to 6 years. In addition, it is possible that the induction of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs will increase disease severity.
Multiple studies have suggested that antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of coronavirus infections occur and, in SARS-CoV/macaque models, anti-S protein IgG has been shown to exacerbate acute lung injury (ALI). For these reasons, it has been suggested that vaccines against emerging coronaviruses should emphasize the generation of a memory CD8+ T cell response. Based on our work with glioblastoma, we have developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 T cell vaccine, referred to as the COVID19 ATAK™ myeloid cell vaccine.